A Review on Microstrip Patch Antenna with Electromagnetic Band Gap Substrate
Area
BG (Electromagnetic Band Gap ), PBG (Photonic Band Gap ), HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator), Coaxial Feed Antenna
Author
Rahul Singh Gyanender Kumar
Edition
Volume 2 Issue 2
Org/Univ
Geeta Engineering College, Panipat

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In this paper, we have reviewed the behavior of electromagnetic substrates to enhance the gain of antenna. In respect of all the research paper s gain is improved up to7.92 db using hexagonal electromagnetic substrates that results in fluctuations in the bandwidth which improve s the gain of the antenna. Secondly, we observed that for enhancing the gain of retur n loss should be minimum. Second factor is bandwidth that needs to be discussed

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Machine Learning’s Various Algorithms and Choice of Suitable Algorithm for Suitable: A Review
Area
Machine-learning, Supervised -learning, Unsupervised -learning, K-means, Naïve Bayes, Decision-tree, Classification, Clustering
Author
Rakesh Kumar Mittal, Shalini Bhadola, Kirti Bhatia
Edition
Volume 2 Issue 2
Org/Univ
Geeta Engineering College, Panipat

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Artificial Intelligence has the power to change the working environment of the world. It is an important technique of business, science & research, education, engineering, IT, and human development in these days. The sub- set of artificial intelligence is Machine learning. Machine learning is the main focused area of artificial intelligence. It is a technique that makes computer intelligent. It’s a learning technique for the machine. The machine learns by its experience. The most important ingredients of experience are data set. Experience enriches the data set. In practice, the data set is the basic building block of the machine learning and experience add on new data to its previous data set. Dataset helps in finding the pattern and it leads to prediction. The algorithm plays the most important role in learning and it is an integral part of it. The algorithm is made in a way that it becomes int elligent by the experience so it does not require any explicit program. Machine learning has two types, supervised learning and unsupervised learning. In supervised learning, a label is given to data. On the bases of that label, it predicts the result. S upervised learning uses the classification algorithm to grouping the data. Classification algorithm, for example, Na ïve Bias, Decision Tree, etc.. In unsupervised learning no label is provided to dataset. Clusters are created for the data set on the basis of features of the dataset. An important algorithm for unsupervised learning is k - means and Principal Component Analysis. All the algorithms are good but an important point is the selection of a correct algorithm for the correct situation. If the ch oice of algorithm is good then it will work fine and give the accurate result. The choice may be done after the study of the past performance of the algorithm.

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Review on Microstrip Antenna with Metamaterial Substrates
Area
Metamaterial, HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator), Cross shape Metamaterial, FDTD
Author
Garima Shrishti Khurana Gyanender Kumar
Edition
Volume 2 Issue 2
Org/Univ
Geeta Engineering College, Panipat

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In this paper , we are reviewing metamaterial substrates enhanced the bandwidth of the antenna. Since for ultra-wide band operation Microstrip antenna is used. Self-Similarity property of Microstrip antenna structures provides receptiveness. For wideband operation, the conc ept of metamaterial is proposed . In substrates metamaterial is used & in patch Microstrip structures used.

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Dielectric Resonator Antenna for MIMO Applications: A Review
Area
Department of ECE
Author
Phuritshabam Zenita, Ravi Malik, Gyanender Kumar
Edition
Volume 2 Issue 2
Org/Univ
Geeta Engineering College, Panipat

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This Paper presents an analysis of investigation on dielectric resonator antenna (DRA’s) over the last three to four decades. In every decade the research would come up with new trends. The current status of the dielectric resonator antenna technology is now reviewed. Always the evaluation has been done on the foundation of around vital parameters that include Bandwidth, Efficiency, Realized Gain, Dielectric constant, dimensions, and DRA material used. This paper includes a comparison and designed of various configurations of DRA’s for various applications have been appraised. From the comparison, it is clear that Weighted configuration of rectangular DRA gives the best results. It encompasses three rectangular DRA of different dimensions with dielectric constant 2.1 piled together. It works in the Bandwidth range of 6 MHz giving a Peak Realized Gain of 6.47 dB at 5.7 GHz. The enhanced Bandwidth and Gain is achieved if the dielectric constant of the material is decreased, however, the dielectric constant antenna is inversely proportional to the size of the antenna. Hence, there is a steadiness between the size and the Bandwidth depending on the requirement.

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